This is a specific response to the above.
In Chapter 9, Stress and Disease, by Jane Shelby and Kathryn L. McCance, in Pathophysiology (Kathryn L. McCance and Sue E. Huether, Mosby, 1998), under the paragraph heading “Stress Response, Psychoneuroimmunologic Regulation” (Page 290) it is stated: “Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the interaction of consciousness (psycho), brain and central nervous system (neuro), and the body’s defense against external infection and abnormal cell division (immunology). Psychoneuroimmunology assumes that all immune-related disease is multifactorial, or the result of interrelationships among psychosocial, emotional, genetic, neurologic, endocrine, and immune systems and behavioral factors. The immune system is integrated with other physiologic processes and is sensitive to changes in the central nervous system and endocrine functioning, such as those that accompany psychologic states. Stressors, such as infection, noise, decreased oxygen supply, pain, malnutrition, heat, cold, trauma, prolonged exertion, responses to life events including anxiety, depression, anger, fear, excitement, and radiation, obesity, old age, drugs, disease, surgery, and medical treatment, can elicit the stress response. The stress response is initiated by the nervous and endocrine systems.
“The sympathetic nervous system is aroused during the stress response and causes the medulla of the adrenal gland to release catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) into the bloodstream.”
On Page 291, under the paragraph heading “Catecholamines” it is stated: “Metabolically, epinephrine causes transient hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) by activating enzymes whose actions promote glucose formation (gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in the liver) while inhibiting glucose breakdown. Epinephrine decreases glucose uptake in the muscle and other organs and decreases insulin release from the pancreas. The decrease in insulin release prevents glucose from being taken up by peripheral tissue and thus preserves it for the central nervous system. Stressors commonly associated with catecholamine release by the adrenal medulla include…acute emotional states.”
Under the paragraph heading “Cortisol” it is stated (Pages 291-292): “One of the primary effects of cortisol is the stimulation of gluconeogenesis, or the formation of glycogen from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino or free fatty acids in the liver. In addition, cortisol enhances the elevation of blood glucose promoted by other hormones, such as epinephrine, glucagon, and somatotropic growth hormone. Cortisol also inhibits the uptake and oxidation of glucose by many body cells. The overall action of cortisol on carbohydrate metabolism results in an elevation of blood glucose.”